By Neal H. Atebara, MD
Discusses present functions of optical phenomena, together with the optical foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs and refractive surgical procedure. offers optics of the human eye; easy strategies of geometric optics; ophthalmic tools and make contact with lenses. Discusses imaginative and prescient rehabilitation from the epidemiology of imaginative and prescient impairment, type of visible functionality deficits, sufferer evaluate and occasional imaginative and prescient administration. final significant revision 2009 2010.
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Extra resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
The nodal points are always on the optical axis and have an important property. From any object point, a unique ray passes through th e anterior nodal point. This ray emerges from the optical system along the line connecting th e posterior nodal point to the conjugate image point (Fig 2-9). These rays fo rm 2 angles with the optical axis. The essential property of the nodal points is that these 2 angles are equal for any selected object point. Because of this feature, nodal pOints are useful for establishing a relationship among transverse magni ficatio n.
This process is known as absorption (Fig 1-15A). Because th e lowest energy state is the most stable. the excited atom soo n emits a quantum of energy at the same frequency in order to return to the ground state. This process can occur without external stimulation (spontaneous em ission; Fig 1-15B) or as a result of 22 • Clinica l Optics A B ) ) c ~I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I D Figure 1-14 Comparison of propert ies of incandescent and la ser light sources. A, The incandescent bulb emits incoherent, rapid ly divergent light with a broad mixtu re of wavelengths (solid and broken waves).
The laser 24 • Clinica l Optics cavity acts as an optical resonator. Mirrors are placed at each end of a beam path to reflect light back and forth th rough the active medium , in which pumping maintains a population inversion (Fig 1-16). Each time the light wave resonates th rough the active medium, the total coherent light energy is increased through stimulated emission. Spontaneous emission, which occurs randomly in all direct ions, rarely strikes a mirror and th erefore is not amplified. The last element in this schematic laser design is a mechanism for releasing some of the oscillating laser light from the cavity.
2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course) by Neal H. Atebara, MD