By Ari Rabl
Presents a survey of sun geometry and meteorological info, the optics of assorted forms of sun creditors, the mechanics of warmth move, and personal parts of method deign, optimization, and monetary research. additionally mentioned are checking out, equipment and fabrics, and monitoring and nontracking creditors
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Additional resources for Active solar collectors and their applications
Also it becomes necessary to follow the motion of the sun. This tracking requirement increases with concentration. 3 averaged over the year, can be reached by planar reflector enhancement. For concentration ratios up to 2, one can avoid the need for tracking by using the so-called CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) design, also called nonimaging concentrator. S. use CPC reflectors. 6a shows the cross section of an evacuated tube with external cusplike CPC reflector. 6 (a) CPC reflector coupled to tubular evacuated receiver, (b) Evacuated glass tube shaped as CPC reflector (From O'Gallagher et al.
To use a coordinate system that is fixed in the earth and to assume that the sun moves in a circular orbit around the earth. This is an acceptable approximation for solar energy calculations because the eccentricity of the earth's orbit is very small. There are, however, two features of an elliptical orbit that require special consideration. 7% between apogee and perigee. This effect can be accounted for by assuming that the effective solar constant varies with time of year according to the formula where n is the day of year after 1 January and 70 is the solar constant = 1 373 W/m2.
1982] have achieved efficiencies of 50% around 20CTC with a fixed-tilt-evacuated collector using glass tubes shaped as CPC reflector, a design sketched in Fig. 6b. Thus the important market for industrial process steam at 175°C could be supplied by collectors that are quite insensitive to dirt and avoid the problems of tracking. In addition, they accept most of the diffuse insolation; they could therefore outperform tracking collecotors, especially in cloudier regions. CPC collectors with low concentrations and nonevacuated receivers may be economical for temperatures around the boiling point of water [CollaresPereira and Sequeira, 1982].
Active solar collectors and their applications by Ari Rabl