By Jennifer I. Lim (ed.)
Addressing a tremendous affecting hundreds of thousands around the world, this resource compiles the main sensible and groundbreaking examine at the etiology, overview, and therapy of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). With full-color illustrations all through, this reference explores study developments that experience ended in novel treatments that supply sight saving, much less damaging different types of remedy for exudative AMD, in addition to recommendations to avoid the development of non-exudative AMD. With 3 new chapters and expansive quantity of part updates, this resource provides the newest reports on OCT imaging, experimental remedies, new purposes for thermal lasers, and gene remedy for AMD. The resource additionally summarizes reviews from present scientific trials to stay the ideal within the provision of take care of sufferers with this disabling disorder.
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Additional resources for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Macrophages in Atherosclerosis Blood-derived macrophages are major contributors to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (101,108,115). In the fatty streak phase of atherosclerosis, lipids accumulate in the subendothelial vascular wall at sites of vascular injury. Injury results in the oxidation of lipids or endothelial production of speciﬁc macrophage chemotactic signals, like macrophage chemotactic protein-1, recruiting circulating monocytes to sites of endothelial injury. , scavenging macrophages).
Also, cell culture data suggest that blood monocytes from patients with AMD can become partially activated into reparative macrophages by growth factors and debris released by oxidant-injured RPE (55). 1% to 1% of blood mononuclear cells (56). However, in tissue sites, DC become large (15–30 mm) with cytoplasmic veils which form extensions two to three times the diameter of the cell, resembling the dendritic structure of neurons. In many non-lymphoid and lymphoid organs, DC become a system of APCs.
In addition to injury stimuli produced by the immune effector and ampliﬁcation systems described above, nonimmune injurious stimuli include physical injury (heat, light, mechanical) or biochemical stimulation (hypoxia, pH change, oxidants, chemical mediators, cytokines) (89). Typical cellular reactions to injury include a wide spectrum of responses, including changes in intracellular metabolism, plasma membrane alterations, cytokine production, and gene upregulation, morphological changes, cellular migration, proliferation, or even death.
Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Jennifer I. Lim (ed.)