By Miles McPhee
At a time whilst the polar areas are present process quick and unheard of switch, figuring out exchanges of momentum, warmth and salt on the ice-ocean interface is necessary for realistically predicting the long run country of sea ice. via providing a dimension platform principally unaffected by means of floor waves, drifting sea ice presents a different laboratory for learning elements of geophysical boundary layer flows which are tremendous tricky to degree in other places. This ebook attracts on either huge observations and theoretical rules to increase a concise description of the impression of tension, rotation, and buoyancy at the turbulence scales that regulate exchanges among the ambience and underlying ocean while sea ice is current. numerous fascinating and precise observational info units are used to demonstrate assorted elements of ice-ocean interplay starting from the effect of salt on melting within the Greenland Sea marginal ice region, to how nonlinearities within the equation of kingdom for seawater have an effect on blending within the Weddell Sea.
The book’s content material, built from a sequence of lectures, might be applicable extra fabric for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate scholars learning the geophysics of sea ice and planetary boundary layers.
Miles McPhee plays geophysical study, occupied with polar areas, either from McPhee examine corporation and as associate primary scientist on the collage of Washington utilized Physics Laboratory. He has participated in additional that twenty box courses within the polar oceans of either hemispheres. Dr. McPhee additionally lectures on air-ice-sea interplay on the college heart on Svalbard.
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Additional resources for Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes
The double arrow indicates the increase in salinity needed to raise the potential density of the upper layer to that of the lower. All else being equal, the salt rejected from about 13 cm of additional ice growth (at the time the ice was about 35 cm thick) would accomplish this. The dashed line connecting the modiﬁed surface water and the deeper water in Fig. 11a is the so-called mixing line, which describes the T/S characteristics of any product from conservative mixing of the two different water masses.
7 The Equation of State for Seawater 31 To offset a change in salinity so that density remains unchanged would require that δ T /δ S = −βS /βT . For the conditions of Fig. 86 ◦C and about 8 for T = 4 ◦ C. Thus for water close to freezing, density variation is almost exclusively a function of salinity, and temperature may often be treated as a passive scalar contaminant. , ρ (T, S, p = 0) or σ0 = ρ (T, S, p = 0) − 1000. The reason for this is clear: a well mixed layer with uniform T and S, will have a pressure induced vertical density gradient, but there is negligible work (besides friction) involved in moving a parcel from one level (pressure) to another.
3a) showing downward motion with a maximum approaching 3 cm s−1 , and persisting for nearly 5 min. During this time, temperature (b) and salinity (c) both deviate in a positive sense from their 1-h mean values. For salinity, this is consistent with salt ejected at the interface enhancing turbulence by gravitational acceleration. The large positive temperature anomaly indicates that, despite rapid freezing and upward heat conduction through the ice, water near the surface was being heated by incoming shortwave radiation that had penetrated the thin ice cover, and carried downward in the large eddies.
Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes by Miles McPhee