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Additional resources for Air-sea interaction: laws and mechanisms
Observations have verified the logarithmic distribution of temperature in the constant flux layer. 4. 56, and subtracting θs /θ ∗ on both sides, turns the equation into a heat transfer law, connecting interface flux (through θ ∗ ) to the temperature excess or deficiency θ(h) − θs . 57) where the parameters rt and Ct depend on processes in the conductive boundary layer as well as on the influence of the windsea. 58) with z t playing the same role as z 0 in the velocity distribution, so that it is referred to as a temperature roughness length.
1998) concluded that the drag coefficients reported earlier were on the average 6% too high, owing to airflow distortion by the research vessel. 3. 0, or less than 3%. 3. ’s (1998) analysis furthermore ties the much larger scatter of individual observations to airflow distortions varying with wind direction. ’s report on the sources of errors ten years later constitute as good support for Charnock’s law as one could possibly get. Another way to express the verdict of the evidence is that Charnock’s law yields the ten-meter wind speed U (10), as a multiple of the friction velocity, with an error of less than one u ∗ , which is the order of magnitude of the neglected common surface velocity of air and water.
In any case, what is left for the total entropy transfer rate to turbulence is the sum of conjugate Flux-Force products. This also equals the sum of entropy sources associated with the three Fluxes, integrated over the range of the eddy motions. In this indirect manner, the air-sea transfers, with their complex Flux-Force relationships, conform to Onsager’s theorem. 75 is that the right-hand side may be written as: −c p w T d(T + gz/c p ) T2 dz where the quantity T + gz/c p is known as potential temperature.
Air-sea interaction: laws and mechanisms by G T Csanady,NetLibrary, Inc.